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CSC 301.01, Class 08: Roles of data structures and abstract data types


  • Preliminaries
    • Notes and news
    • Upcoming work
    • Extra credit
    • Questions
  • The master theorem
  • Abstract data types
  • Data structures
  • A Dictionary ADT

News / Etc.

  • As the poet says, “The best-laid schemes o’ mice an’ men gang aft agley”.
    • I did not get grading done this weekend.

Upcoming work

  • Assignment 3, due 10:30 pm Wednesday
    • Code via email
    • Printed under door

Extra credit (Academic)

  • CS Table, Tuesday, Machine Ethics
  • CS Extras, Thursday, Klinge Map Group on Cauldron

Extra credit (Peer)

  • Math/CS/Stats Picnic (sign up again)

Extra Credit (Misc)

  • Time Management Workshop, Tuesday, 11am, JRC 226.
  • Host a prospective student [ohc]

Other good things

  • ???


In doing the kth largest, do we make another array?
No. That’s inefficient. Just keep track of the area that is of interest.
Two lb/ub: One for “This is the portion of interest”, one for partitioning.
Should we use median of medians or kth largest or …
I like randomized kth largest, but perhaps that’s me.
Can we mutate the array?
Sure. You can also create a copy (once!) and then mutate the copy.
Can we just do the simple “median of an array of numbers” or should we
It’s C. Generalizing is a pain. Array of numbers is fine.
Should we submit our HackerRank code, too?
Why doesn’t HackerRank see my output?
You’ve probably forgotten to include a newline.
How should we organize our code for submitting.
kth-largest.c : Library that provides kthlargest procedure.
kth-largest.h : Corresponding header code
kth-largest-tests.c : Your test suite
kl.c : Command-line version (optional)
hr-median.c : The hackerrank code.
If we work as a group on the code
Send me one code file.

The master theorem

Building recursion trees helped us understand a variety of different recurrence relationships.

  • If T(n) = 3*T(n/2) + c, then T(n) is in O(n^(log_2(3)))
  • If T(n) = 2*T(n/2) + c, then T(n) is in O(n)
  • If T(n) = 2*T(n/2) + n^2, then T(n) is in O(n^2)
  • If T(n) = 2T(n/2) + n, then T(n) is in O(nlogn)

Three issues:

  • How much we divide the input for a recursive call
  • How many recursive calls we make
  • How much work we do in each call

There’s probably a pattern.

The master theorem works for recurrences of the form T(n) = aT(n/b)+f(n) or T(n) <= aT(n/b)+f(n). These represent typical forms of divide-and-conquer algorithms.

  • What does a represent?
  • What does b represent?
  • What does f(n) represent?

There’s a simpler version (which I’m taking from Weiss). This is for recurrences of the form T(n) = aT(n/b) + O(n^k)

  1. If a > b^k, then T(n) is in O(n^(log_b(a)))

  2. If a = b^k, then T(n) is in O((n^k)*log_2(n)))

  3. If a < b^k, then T(n) is in O(n^k)

I may need to recheck those.

We’ll try some basic examples.

The more general computation depends on the relationship between f(n) and how quickly the n/b drops to 0.

  1. If f(n) is in O(n^(log_b(a)-e)) for some e > 0, then T(n) is in Theta(n^(log_b(a)))

  2. If f(n) is in Theta(n^log_b(a)), then T(n) is in Theta((n^(log_b(a))*log(n))

  3. If f(n) is in Omega(n^(log_b(a)+e))_ for some e > 0, and af(n/b) <= cf(n) for some c < 1 and large enough n, then T(n) is in Theta(f(n)).

Abstract data types

Reflect on the following questions. Be prepared to answer.

What is an abstract data type (ADT)?
An abstract way of holding data.
Not a concrete implementation, but how do we use it and what do we use it for?
A list is a collection of values that we can dynamically extend (in restricted ways) and iterate.
A vector is a (mutable) collection of values that you can index.
Why do we use ADTs?
Helps us think about how we want to organize and access data depending on the situation.
How do you design ADTs?
Consider the overall Philosophy: How are you organizing the info? (I want to have a collection in which it is easy to add things and then see if I’ve added something. We’ll call that a “Set”)
Consider the Methods that implement that philosophy. add (core) contains? (core), iterate (optional), remove (optional/may separate us into two kinds of Sets)
Consider the Use Cases for that ADT.
Go on to the data structure

Data structures

Reflect on the following questions. Be prepared to answer.

What is a data structure?
Way of organizing (structuring) information (data) to achieve some goal.
How do we use data structures?
To implement implement ADTs.
To support most algorithms.
How do you design/build data structures?
Overall Approach - Linked structure and array
Details of method implementations
Running time of method implementations
What relationship are there between ADTs and data structures?
data structures implement ADTs.
class vs. interface relationship in Java.
But …

A Dictionary ADT

Reflect on the following questions. Be prepared to answer.

If you haven’t seen dictionaries before, think of them as a generalization of hash tables.

What do you see as the primary philosophy of dictionaries?
A collection of values indexed by arbitrary key (e.g., a string)
What do you see as some natural uses of dictionaries?
A bunch of different lookup systems.
Implementing the values of variables in a dynamic programming language
What do you see as the necessary methods a dictionary ADT should provide?
replace(key,value) - multiple philosophies
What do you see as optional methods a dictionary ADT might provide?
iterate() - what does this return?

Dictionary is another name for Map is another name for Dictionary is another name for Table

What implementations of dictionaries do you know?
Hash tables
Assocation lists
Associative arrays
Sorted associative arrays
Balanced BSTs