# Class 23: Recursion Basics

Back to Iterating Over Positions. On to Recursion Basics, Continued.

This outline is also available in PDF.

Held: Friday, 29 February 2008

Summary: We begin our exploration of recursion, the most general form of repetition available in Scheme. You can use recursion to both build and iterate over different kinds of values. Today, we explore how you use recursion to build simple numeric values from lists, and how to remove elements from lists.

Related Pages:

Notes:

• Are there questions on Assignment 6?
• Are there questions in preparation for the quiz?
• We'll do things in a slightly different order today: I'll chat for a few minutes about the topic, then you'll take the quiz, then you'll do the lab.

Overview:

• The idea of recursion.
• A sample recursive procedure: `sum`.
• Another example: Filtering.

## Repetition

• You may recall that when we first considered algorithms we identified a number of key aspects of algortihms:
• variables: the ability to name things;
• conditions: the ability to choose between things;
• procedures: the ability to name (and parameterize) collections of steps;
• repetition: the ability to do something multiple times;
• input and output: the ability to get and report values.
• We've already seen how to do all of these things.
• Examples of repetition from baking:
• Stir the mix 50 times
• Bake until golden-brown.
• Examples of repetition from mathematics:
• Sum these values
• Find the smallest of these values
• Examples of repetition from everyday life:
• Naively find a name in the phone book
• Do I have a CD by Van Morrison?
• Examples of repetition from previous Scheme exercises:
• How long is this list?
• Is X a member of this list?
• We know a few ways to repeat actions:
• Using lists; `map` and `foreach!`
• Using images: `image-variant`, `image-transform!`, and `image-compute-pixels!`.
• Today we begin to consider more general forms of recursion.

## Recursion

• In Scheme, the most common mechanism for repetition is recursion.
• To do something that involves repeated actions, you
• Do one action
• Repeat the rest
• Combine the results if necessary.
• For example, to stir your cake mix 50 times, you stir it one time and then stir it 49 more times.
• More generally, to stir a cake mix n times, you stir it one time and then n-1 more times.
• Similarly, to knead dough until its the right consistency, you knead it a little, check the consistency, and, if it's not the right consistency, knead it until its the right consistency.
• In the case of mathematics, to sum a list we might add the first value to the sum of the remaining values (or add the last value to the sum of the initial values).
• There are a few key aspects to recursive design:
• You need to know when you're done (and what to do when you're done). This aspect of recursive design is called the base case.
• You need to know what to do when you're not done. Here, you should do a little, try again, and then perhaps combine the results. This aspect of recursive design is called the recursive case.
• You need to be sure that you're getting closer to the base case (otherwise you'll never stop).

## Recursion in Scheme

• Here's the form of a typical recursive procedure:
```(define proc
(lambda (val)
(if (base-case-test)
(base-case val)
(combine (partof val)
(proc (update val))))))
```
• When the value you're working with is a list and your base case is the null list, the form is somewhat simpler:
```(define proc
(lambda (lst)
(if (null? lst)
null-case
(combine (onestep (car val))
(proc (cdr val))))))
```

## Lab

Back to Iterating Over Positions. On to Recursion Basics, Continued.

Disclaimer: I usually create these pages on the fly, which means that I rarely proofread them and they may contain bad grammar and incorrect details. It also means that I tend to update them regularly (see the history for more details). Feel free to contact me with any suggestions for changes.

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Samuel A. Rebelsky, rebelsky@grinnell.edu

Copyright © 2007-8 Janet Davis, Matthew Kluber, and Samuel A. Rebelsky. (Selected materials copyright by John David Stone and Henry Walker and used by permission.) This material is based upon work partially supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CCLI-0633090. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 2.5 License. To view a copy of this license, visit `http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.5/` or send a letter to Creative Commons, 543 Howard Street, 5th Floor, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.